History and development
Siri derived from a combination of multiple sources, projects and technologies. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded the Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes (CALO) project, aiming to develop a personal assistant with machine learning technologies. SRI International, a nonprofit research institute based in Menlo Park, Calif., took the technologies and framework that the CALO project developed to begin the spin-off project that would eventually lead to Siri’s creation.
Nuance Communications, a software company based in Burlington, Mass. that began as a spin-off of SRI International, provided the speech recognition technology that made Siri possible. Members of the SRI International team decided to form a new startup company called Siri, Inc. in 2007. SRI researchers Dag Kittlaus and Adam Cheyer served as CEO and vice president of engineering, respectively, while Tom Gruber served as CTO.
In 2010, Apple acquired Siri, Inc., which then led to the current incarnation of Siri as a native feature on some iOS devices. The service debuted on the iPhone 4S in 2011; in June 2012, Apple announced it would add Siri to the third-generation iPad with the release of iOS 6 and integrate Siri with third-party apps. Siri is not available on earlier versions of the iPhone or iPad.